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Finding the TDSS authors and affiliates ---- An Analysis

Although it is a mystery who created TDSS, there are some interesting strings in some of TDSS'es files.

Lets start with this one.

If we open the file in notepad, we see this somewhere:

Comments Thanks to Edin Kadribasic, Marcus Boerger, Johannes Schlueter

FileVersion 0
InternalName php.exe |$ LegalCopyright Copyright 1997 - 2007 The PHP Group 0 LegalTrademarks PHP 8 OriginalFilename php.exe PrivateBuild 8 ProductName PHP php.exe 2 ProductVersion 5.2.11 SpecialBuild URL D VarFileInfo $ Translation Z y D @ M u . ? / $ !

Released Buster Sandbox Analyzer 1.23

Buster Sandbox Analyzer 1.23 has been released.

Actually the tool is being hosted here:

Version 1.23 introduces the automatic malware analysis mode. This mode allows the analysis of multiple files without any user intervention.

New version also adds other features like the digital signature verification.

The tool can be downloaded directly from:

Buster Sandbox Analyzer makes the malware analysis accesible to everybody in a simple and safe manner.

Intelligence and operational level by Siberia Exploit Pack

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Siberia Exploit Pack is a crimeware, evolution of Napoleon Exploit Pack, which we've done a brief description on another occasion. However, since the time of that description to this day, the landscape has expanded its developer.

In this regard, and while it ends up being one of the bunch, the interesting thing about this crimeware is information provided by their panel of statistics (intelligence for the attacker), by the way very similar to that provided by Eleonore Exploit Pack, which provide data regarding the success of business which has the exploit  pack for recruitment zombie, discriminating on the basis of these data:

  • Countries affected
  • Most exploited Operating Systems
  • Reference domains with the highest percentage by which vulnerabilities are exploited
  • Browsers exploited
  • Pre-compiled exploits in this version of the package

Let me stress (because it's a minor detail) with this collection of information is nothing more than to intelligence, which allows the attacker to know, at first instance:

In the former case, the population of which country is more vulnerable, perhaps because of their level of piracy, which brings to attention the lack of security updates for operating systems and applications, because as we will see to reach exploits, all these are known and have long been concerned with the patch that fixes the vulnerability.

In this case, the first five countries where this crimeware has higher infection rate include the United States, Britain, Canada, Russia and Germany.

The same approach is being pursued with the data we obtained on operating systems "vulnerable" in quotes because, as I said above, the degree of vulnerability of the OS depends directly on a number of aspects that should be covered by hardening, in which an important factor is the implementation of security patches.

For example, the vulnerability in MDAC (Microsoft Data Access Components) from the year 2006 (four years), described in Microsoft Official Bulletin MS06-014. The impact on operating systems have this version of crimeware, we can see in the picture below.

The list of operating systems is large and attacked the three with the highest vulnerability gap belongs to the family of Microsoft (which is obviously due to the massiveness of use), and other MS also.

However, the crimeware cover other non-Windows operating systems, including PlayStation consoles (GNU / Linux or Black Rhino) and Nintendo Wii (ironically a modified version of a GNU/Linux), in the case of OS used and Workstations high-end mobile phones, including:

  • Mac OS
  • GNU/Linux
  • FreeBSD
  • iPhone
  • Windows Mobile
  • Windows CE
  • Pocket PC
  • Symbian OS

Here we are beginning to recognize that criminals have broadened the scope of coverage, incorporating into its portfolio of options exploitation of vulnerabilities (through the browser) and recruitment of zombies on other operating systems used in other computer technologies.

Ether 0.1 Debian Package - BETA

To make Ether a bit easier to install, we've put together a Debian package with precompiled Ether binaries. This is considered a highly beta install package, so you will want to take care about where you install it. Everything should install into /opt/ and work very closely to how Ether does when you compile via source.

Please note that this package contains the Ether patched Xen package. Other than satisfying the package's dependencies, you shouldn't install anything beyond that. This has been tested with a fresh installation of Debian Lenny. Please note that uninstall is currently not implemented.

Thanks to Chris Collord and Daniel Cox for their work on this.

Download the Ether 0.1 Debian Package here

Generating Ether-like Trace Files for VERA

I've had a few people email me about how to use non-Ether generated trace files in VERA. To help with this, I ran a trace with Ether of the Notepad.exe included with Windows XP.

Notepad.exe Trace file

If you want to generate instruction traces external from Ether, you just need to make sure it follows the same format. First, you should start with the standard instruction trace boilerplate. It looks like this:

After init:
        shared_page_ptr: 0xffff830000fd9000
        shared_page_mfn: 0xfd9
        domid_source: 0
        event_channel_port: 34
Shared Page va: 0x7fde19b77000
Shared Page test:
        Page-Sharing is A-OK!

Trying to bind to local port...
Success, bound to local port: 35
Trying to get first pending notification...
Taking off suprious pending notification...
Setting filter by name to: notepad.exe
Execution of Target detected:
        Image Base:  0x1000000
        Image Size:  0x14000
        Entry Point: 0x100739d

After this, all you need to do is have a listing of instructions. Right now the only thing I'm parsing is the instruction address, so there's no need to include the actual instruction. Later versions of VERA will use the disassembly.

100739d: push   0x70
100739d: push   0x70
100739f: push   0x01001898
10073a4: call   0x01007568
1007568: push   0x010075BA
100756d: mov    eax, fs:[0x00000000]
1007573: push   eax

At the end of the file, after all the instructions make sure you include two "Handling sigint" messages:

1007519: jnz    0x01007522
100751b: push   esi
100751c: call   [0x1001318]
Handling sigint
Handling sigint

That should be all you need to use VERA for your own uses. As always, let me know if there are any bugs you observe.

VERA 0.1 Released

I would like to announce the latest version of VERA, the reverse engineering visualization program. Lots of bugs have been fixed, which I have detailed below. Be sure to read the original VERA release documentation for instructions on how to use it.

Here is the change log:

  • View panning has now been fixed so that it follows the mouse.

  • Cleaned up display code and made it more portable
  • Fixed right-click selection code. Currently a stub function but more will come later
  • Center graph on first load. Now the graph isn't out in the middle of nowhere when you first load it.
  • The start of execution is highlighted with a big blue box
  • Added arrows to show directionality of execution
  • Implemented frustum culling for rendering font text. This makes things *much* faster.

If you have any problems, please let me know via dquist SHIFT-2 offensivecomputingDOTnet

State of the art in CRiMEPACK Exploit Pack

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CRiMEPACK exploit pack is a widespread and accepted in the crime scene in this area came under the slogan "Highest Lowest rates for the price".

He is currently In-the-Wild 3.0 version is being developed as alpha (the first of this version). That's, is in the middle stage of evaluation, perhaps in the next few days will go on sale in underground forums, at which time it will know your actual cost.

Like any pack exploit, it also consists of a set of pre-compiled exploits to take advantage of a number of vulnerabilities in systems with weaknesses in some of its applications, then download and run (Drive-by-Download & Execute) codes malicious and convert that system into a zombie, and therefore part of the apparatus crime.

And I mean ... "criminal" because those behind the development of this type of crimeware do for this purpose. And judging by the pictures (a washcloth, a handgun, a wallet, money and what appears to be cocaine, own scenario of all mafia) observed in the authentication interface your control panel, this definition is very evident.

The first time I found this package was in 2009, when version In-the-Wild was version 2.1 and later expressed his "great leap" to one of the most popular: version 2.8 (still active) which in early 2010 had incorporated into its portfolio of exploits CVE-2010-0188 y CVE-2010-0806; in addition to adding an iframe generator and function "Kaspersky Anti-emulation", at a cost of USD 400.

YARA 1.4 released

A new version of YARA have been released. This version improves the scanning speed and fix an annoying bug which causes crashes on 64-bits Windows. It also introduces external variables, a feature that allows you to create rules dependent on variables provided from the outside world.

Get the latest documentation here

The Irrelevancy of Industry Accepted Malware Testing Standards

Writing or presenting about AV testing and performance is a great way to draw the collective ire of the AV industry. This is a hot button subject that I, personally, have received a lot of grief on. The primary reason that the AV industry is so sensitive about their software is because it is not as effective as they would like you to believe. Case in point is the recent Anti-Malware Testing Standards Organization’s document titled Issues involved in the ‘creation’ of samples for testing. If you want to find a document listing all the hot-button issues that particularly perturb the AV community, here it is.

Without taking a particular side, the document seeks to “frame the debate” of the issue of “creating” malware samples. What follows is a 19 page exploration of all the ways new malware can be created. Here is a short list of modifications that they address:

  1. Archiving samples using ZIP or tar

  2. Packing / repacking with a new packer (think UPX or ASPack)
  3. Using a malware generation kit
  4. Server-side polymorphic samples - the sample is slightly modified every time it is downloaded from a public website
  5. Patched versions of an existing file, including PE modifications and actual code changes
  6. Writing a custom packer
  7. Writing a new sample using existing techniques
  8. Writing new samples using unknown techniques

Specifically prohibited is public dissemination of malware samples. These might actually encourage people to test AV software before buying it.

The pros and cons of each are presented, followed by a way to frame your debate afterwards. What all of these miss is the central point that malware authors are using every single one of these techniques with spectacular success. The other terrible secret is that these techniques are extremely easy. Continued debate on whether or not these tests are ethical is moot because malware authors are already using them. In order to protect against real threats, you must use the techniques that are being used to evade your protection software.

Consider the NHTSA talking about testing crash performance, but not actually ever smashing any of the cars into a wall. There’s no substitute for the real thing unless you’re trying to hide something. In the case of the AV industry, that thing is their technological irrelevance to the modern malware threat.

PDF Exploit detection system: Joedoc

We are happy to release Joedoc a novel runtime analysis system for detecting exploits in documents like pdf and doc. In its current beta stage it detects pdf exploits in Acrobat Reader 7.0.5, 8.1.2, 9.0 and 9.2. Check out the submission instructions on to check malicious pdfs.

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